How To Grow Lavender: A Maryland Expert Weighs In

One of the perks of being a master gardener is all the great lectures you get to attend. And today’s talk following the board meeting was no exception. It happened to coincide with the very moment I was asking myself “What’s going on with my lavender?” Here was professional grower, Sophia Watkins, ready to answer all my questions.


Watkins runs a family-owned, sustainable farm called Soleado Lavender Farm. Located in Dickerson, Maryland, it is the largest of its kind in the state. Watkins grew up on the 286-acre property, 26 acres of which are now dedicated solely to the growing of lavender.

Soleado Lavender Farm

The family prides itself on its long history of organic farming, a practice Watkins’ father adopted back in the 1960s. During that time, the farm grew primarily a mix of soybeans and grains. For a child, it was a great way to grow up. So later, when Watkins and her fiancé took over the farm, they knew they wanted to continue the tradition.

“Our goal was about preservation even more than about gardening,” she said. “We wanted to protect these special parts of Maryland and keep them alive for not only our own child but for everybody else’s children as well.”

Why choose lavender? The couple was looking for a sustainable perennial that deer wouldn’t eat and one from which they could make products for sale. Lavender fit the bill — not only for its drought-tolerance, but also for its many decorative and culinary uses. As the farm grew in popularity, the couple added bees for pollination. And today, the farm boasts nine hives with over 40,000 bees in each, all producing lavender honey.

In a nod to Watkins’ fiancé’s Latin American roots, they named their farm Soleado, meaning sunny or ‘baking in the sun.’ As it so happens, in their first year of operation, Watkins says they found themselves ‘dying in the heat’ as they got things established. As a result, Soleado took on a new shade of meaning.


At Soleado Lavender Farm, all of the plants are grown from cuttings, a practice most nurseries have adopted due to the lower germination rate of seeds. Watkins harvests both soft and hardwood cuttings in summer. She strips all but two or three leaves at the top then dips them in a root hormone to encourage propagation. Not surprisingly, her top choice is honey.

Honey bee

In order to give the developing roots plenty of space to expand, Watkins then plants her cuttings in a ‘bulky’ growing medium composed of Leafgro and perlite. Later, she moves them to 2” plastic pots.

Once potted, the cuttings spend up to 8 weeks in partial shade or in the greenhouse (under shade cloths) until substantial roots begin to develop. Afterward, the new plants are moved to the field. Watkins noted that if the cuttings are planted outside first, the process usually goes faster.


According to Watkins, three is the magic number of years it takes for a good-sized plant to develop. After that, it may continue to grow for another four. What happens around year seven, I asked? If taken care of properly, lavender can live for anywhere between ten and twenty years.  Indeed, some historical properties boast plants that are as old as 80.

Lavender border along stone steps

A great combo, hydrangea and lavender

Once established, lavender is a sun-loving plant. This explains why no variety can tolerate shade and still produce flowers. Once the flowers are harvested, Watkins sprays the plants’ roots with fish emulsion for fertilizer. “We need to fortify them after they’ve put all that energy into blooming, “ she said.


There is much conflicting information about when and how to cut back lavender. Watkins freely admits that her method might not suit everyone, but at Soleado Lavender Farm, they prune their plants two to four times a year. She shears her crop like sheep, cutting back all new growth each time the plants flower. This process begins almost as soon as the cuttings are transplanted.

Growing cutting back lavender

Cutting back encourages new growth

Cutting back not only encourages new, dense growth, but also helps mitigate lavender’s annoying tendency to open up in the middle. It also improves the overall looks of the plant and enables it to better survive the winter. Lastly, it redirects energy into developing strong roots, which according to Watkins, results in a thicker, healthier plant.

At Soleado Lavender Farm, they never prune anything thicker than a pencil. And they avoid old wood. Watkins does NOT recommend cutting back old woody stems. If you absolutely must, she said to trim them back just to where the first bunch of leaves start on the bush.

They stop all cutting by the end of October.


Along with lots of sun, lavender prefers to stay dry. Ironically, once of the main threats to its survival comes in the form of mulch. According to Watkins, shredded mulch is the biggest offender. Since it often harbors mold spores, this kind of material can spell death for lavender.

“What seems to really kill them is the mold spores that come in on shredded mulch,” said Watkins. “Given the amount of humidity we have (in Maryland), it’s really important to stick with a dry medium.”

If you’re using shredded mulch in the rest of your garden, Watkins advises keeping it at least one to two feet away from your lavender. At the farm, they use crushed bluestone instead (that they harvest from their driveway.) Other great options include white gravel and seashells, both of which have the added benefit of reflecting light back onto the plant.

White gravel mulch is great for lavender

White gravel mulch


Many of us have lost lavender plants over the winter. However, Watkins said, “Getting your plants through the winter does not have to do with size or age, even little seedlings can make it through the winter. A temperature of anything above 0 degrees Fahrenheit is OK.”

Frozen lavender flowers

Frozen lavender

So what can we do to prepare for the colder months? The most important thing, according to Watkins, is to keep plants trimmed and thick. The thickness (or thatchiness) is what keeps the snow and ice out of the plants. (Although snow doesn’t seem to be as bad for lavender as ice.)

In short, it’s a matter of creating a plants that have a good smooth cut on them so they become their own insulation.

Recently, a new lavender introduction called “Phenomenal” is showing amazing cold hardiness, retaining its leaves all through the winter. 


Not only are its water needs low, but lavender also is resistant to most pests and diseases. Watkins says occasionally she’ll observe spittlebugs on her plants, but that’s about it. The main concern is lavender’s super susceptibility to mold spores caused by humidity. As I noted above, the best thing you can do for mold is to practice prevention.

Another great plus to growing lavender is that deer hate it, although Watkins observed that “Sometimes they’ll pull the young plants out of the ground, ‘Just because.”’

Deer won't eat lavender

Soleado Lavender Farm grows a mix of English, French and Spanish lavender varieties. They’re always experimenting with new strains and each year discover clear standouts. These days, Watkins is loving the “rabbit ear petals” on the flower tops of Spanish lavender.

Spanish lavender flowers

Spanish lavender

To learn more about Soleado Lavender Farm, its tours and lavender-based products, click here for the official website.

Updated February 2020

18 thoughts on “How To Grow Lavender: A Maryland Expert Weighs In

  1. Thank you for sharing the tips you gathered in your class. I have gardened in the North West for many years and am moving to Maryland. I love my lavender and was curious if I could grow it in Maryland. The tip about honey as root hormone was great thank you. i will look forward to your other blog posts.

    • Hi Beverly, thanks so much for writing! Make sure to visit Soleado if you can when you move to Maryland. They are the best source for tips on how to successfully grow lavender in our area. Maryland’s high humidity and heavy clay soil can prove challenging at times, but with good instruction it’s entirely possible to have beautiful plants that return year after year. Check out Munstead and Hidcote, two varieties that do well in our area. Best, Carole

  2. Your tips have inspired me to try my hand at lavender. I have a large area in which I have tried growing several things. Deer have been one problem and purchasing wild flower seeds that apparently had other flowers not mentioned in the mix that too over my area like weeds. So… we have pulled everything out and are ready to try lavender. My question: where do you suggest I buy the seeds? It is nearly time to plant!

    • Hi Robin! Thanks for writing. I’m happy my article inspired you to grow lavender. Here are a few things to consider:
      You are correct that fall is the best time to plant lavender plants, but growing lavender from seed is best attempted in the spring. The seeds need a 4 to 6-week germination period before the young plants can be moved to the garden.
      Assuming you’re in an area that is approaching fall, best to take cuttings from other plants. This is what Soleado Lavender Farm recommends as the best way to grow lavender.
      The other problem with seeds is they often don’t produce plants that are true to form. Many growers say seed-grown lavenders have shorter life spans and are best treated as annuals. That being said, one of my favorite seed sources is if you decide to try in the spring.
      I’d recommend planting lavender plants over seeds so you’ll be happy with your results. Munstead and Hidcote are both great varieties.
      Good luck and keep me posted! Best, Carole

      • Thank you so much for this help! I was just about to do seed planting this weekend since temps dropped. Now I will wait. I would love to try several varieties, particularly the Spanish one you spoke of. It seems, however, that everyone sells the same variety. I live 5 minutes from Homestead Gardens in Davidsonville, but they too do not have some of the beauties you speak of here. What would you suggest and where to buy? I do have a small greenhouse, and could start some seedlings in late winter in there? I am a rookie at this but have the property to do it. HELP! I have filled out the email request below.

        • Hi Robin, Homestead Gardens would be my pick near you for great plant supply. And if you feel like venturing over the bridge, Lowe’s Bayshore Nursery in Stevensville is small, but often has more unusual plants (plus rescue animals.) Not sure how to advise on seeds, other than to try your hand at a few different varieties in your greenhouse. I still think that cuttings are the best way to go.

          Soleado is far away from you, but they should be able to offer you some good advice, either by phone or email. And in the spring, don’t forget to check out Home Depot. One year I found a bunch of Spanish lavender there when no one else was carrying it. Good luck on your adventure!

  3. Thank you for your article, which I’ve just discovered . . . and as it is nearly Dec. and I gather it is too late for me to prune my single lavender potted in a limestone/cement “basket”, can you guide me as to what to do to protect my lavender for the coming winter? Many thanks!

    • Hi Vivian, Thanks for writing! If you still have some green branches, maybe even with flowers, you can go ahead and harvest those for winter. Don’t touch the brown ones, though, which have gone dormant. Best to save the heavy pruning until spring.
      Worst enemy of lavender is too much water (or heavy soil that traps water.) This quickly leads to root rot. If your plant is potted, it probably already has good drainage, assuming you have incorporated sand or small gravel into your soil and have a hole in the bottom of the pot. You can take further steps to protect the plant over the winter by adding a layer of mulch to the soil surface.
      Hope this helps! Best, Carole

      • Thank you, Carole, I have rocks in the bottom of the pot and the pot “breaths” well. I’ll snip the flowers, leave the dead stalks and mulch before tomorrow afternoon’s forecast flurries! Warm regards, Viv

  4. Thank you for the article. I’m waiting to see if my lavender plants made it through this past winter. Do you have any advice on how to anchor down the landscaping fabric and what type to purchase? We have high winds which has been a struggle!

    • Hi Grace, I hope your lavender plants made it through! I suggest you contact Soleado Lavender Farm directly and ask them for advice on the landscape fabric. If you’re in the area, they also do informational tours starting in June. Might be a fun way to pick up some new varieties and learn about maintenance. I plan to take my garden group sometime later that month. Hope this helps and good luck! Best,

  5. hi Carole, thanks for your blog post. I love lavender but seem to kill it always so far. I have read a few other webpages but yours is the most informative! I am going to try again with some Hidcote I got in a 1 gallon pot about 8 inches in diameter from Lowes, on my deck as in my one flower bed with some sun, there is mulch and it does not receive full direct sun. if i may ask some questions (a) your blog seems to indicate i should repot . What soil would you advise I use when i do so?
    (b) in pots mulch isnt an issue, and the deck is sunny enough and i could move the pot to catch the most. Where can i get something to put on the pot to prevent too much moisture loss? (c)Need i bring the pot in if it rains? (c)Re cutting back new growth, nothing has flowered yet so Im thinking it’;s too soon? What would classify as ‘new ‘?
    Thanks so much

    • Hi Nalini, thanks for writing. Lavender is such a tricky plant to grow – I applaud you on your diligence! The two most important things you can do for your Hidcote are – 1) give it as much sun as possible and 2) ensure there is good drainage. I’m not sure you need to repot- what is your soil make-up? Remember, lavender is native to hot, dry climates. The more sun it gets, the better. Part shade will result in drooping, leggy stems, with green foliage, whereas full sun will produce sturdy, upright stems with bluish-gray color (preferred). See if you can move your pot to all-day full sun. And don’t worry about the rain.

      Second, drainage/mulch. Because lavender likes things dry, too much moisture can damage its roots. And the job of mulch is to maintain moisture. Many experts recommend using light-reflective mulches like shells or gravel instead of shredded pine for lavender. Shredded pine’s job is to hold in moisture (which is great for most plants). But shells and gravel shade the soil while allowing water to drain thoroughly, which is better for lavender.

      Regarding flowering, I would follow Soleado Lavender Farm’s expert advice and wait to shear your plant back until after the first flowering. Wait until the flowers have completely faded, then shape the plant to your liking.

      Finally, there’s a new variety of lavender called ‘Phenomenal’ that is very easy to grow. I did a comparison this year and wrote about my results recently Might be a good one to add to your collection! Wishing you lots of success and keep me posted! Carole

  6. I have several Phenominal lavendars from last year that are huge this year and full of flowers. Do I need to cut off the flowers or do they stay on all year. I live in Virginia.
    Also they are full of Bumblebees. I was not expecting quite so many bees, is that going to last all summer?

  7. Carole, thank you so much. I dont know what the soil is exactly- it came potted. Ive got this one pot on my deck for maximum sun. But there are more leaves and only two flowers, and what looks like dry shrivelled leaves coming up from the roots. Is this plant beyond help ? I didnt put in any gravel or anything but I keep an eye on it to see if it needs watering. There were exactly two flowers, it came with one, one grew and the rest of the leaves alas appear to be shrivelling up from the soil up. i had this happen once before. THis was my second try.
    Thank you

    • Hi Nalini, is it possible that your shriveled leaves are last year’s foliage? I often have to prune out dead foliage in the spring once the new growth starts to appear. Best of luck with your lavender and keep me posted! Best, Carole

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