Daniel Potter freely admits he’s not an expert on monarchs. But as Professor of Entomology at the University of Kentucky, he and his grad students sure love to run experiments. Recently, they completed a two-year study on the likes and dislikes of the popular orange and black butterfly. Now for the first time ever, there’s a roadmap for building the perfect monarch garden. Continue reading →
What’s the difference between bees, wasps and hornets? You may be surprised to learn that some are masquerading as imposters. Take yellow jackets for instance, whose yellow and black stripes speak bee when in fact they are wasps. In the natural world, though, all three serve a purpose. So before you reach for the chemical spray, please see below. Continue reading →
It’s been a half century now since Earth Day began on April 22, 1970. I can still remember how strange it felt to be dismissed early from school to clean up litter. At the time, the idea seemed foreign to us, which means, of course, that we were used to throwing our trash on the ground. It’s hard to imagine in this day and age that was the common mindset. Continue reading →
If you’re used to order in the garden, naturalistic plantings can seem a bit out of control. But installations such as New York City’s High Line are bringing this new, plant-driven approach more and more into the mainstream. That’s according to award-winning designer Carrie Preston of the Netherland’s Studio TOOP. She spoke recently in Maryland on how to incorporate naturalistic plantings into all types of landscapes. Continue reading →
Trees are generally admired for their surface beauty, but their health and vigor springs from what’s underground. That’s according to Dr. Kelby Fite, Director of Research for Bartlett Tree Research Lab in Charlotte, NC. Recently, he spoke to Maryland’s master gardeners on the reasons why trees fail.
Fite’s lecture entitled ‘Managing the Landscape Below Ground’ provided a wealth of information about how to improve the life of the trees in our landscape. According to Fite, it all starts with the soil.
“We are all guilty of fouling up the soil,” he said. “But, it’s far easier to preserve soils than to remediate after they’re damaged.”
Before reaching for the fertilizer, Fite advises digging a little deeper into the source of the problem. Following are five common reasons why trees fail and what to do about them.
COMPACTED SOIL LEAVES NO ROOM TO BREATH
When it comes to tree health, nothing hurts a tree more than compacted soil. Often caused by construction, soil compaction strikes trees at their roots, depriving them of essential water, oxygen and other nutrients. It also makes it harder for a tree to anchor itself.
Compacted soil makes tree anchorage difficult
Compaction occurs when soil particles are compressed by external factors such as mechanical or human traffic, resulting in reduced pore volume. Since there is less space for air and water, these types of soils have reduced rates of water infiltration and drainage and are often hydrophobic (meaning the water runs off).
In the case of a tree, this leads to poor growth, higher water needs and increased susceptibility to pests and diseases. It is also one of the primary reasons why trees fail.
Fertile, aerated soil
Compacted clay soil
Think of soil as a sponge, with large and small particles.
“What happens when we squeeze a sponge?” Fite asked. “We are increasing the amount of solid matter.”
Tree roots are extensive, and with the exception of the taproot, located for the most part just 8 to 10 inches below the soil. They need space to grow. With compaction, however, many trees will never develop a taproot, instead establishing a network of weakened lateral roots that are unable to keep the tree vertical.
Meanwhile at the soil surface, the tree’s fine feeder roots (which under ideal conditions can extend 4 to 7 times the drip line of the tree) are compromised, too. This reduces its ability to absorb water, oxygen and nutrients.
SOLUTION: Build away from a tree’s drip line and keep mowers and other machinery off of the soil. For existing trees under stress, add a mulch circle. (More on that below.)
DEPRIVING TREES OF FALLEN LEAVES
This is a tough one. I’m not sure I’m ready to shred my leaves and scatter them all over the lawn. But think about it. We spend time and money to rake up and dispose of one of our plants’ most important source of nutrients. Then we go to the store and buy it back again as mulch or soil additives.
“It’s not a great business model,” said Fite.
According to Fite, we are removing one pound of nitrogen per 1000 feet just by removing the leaves from our properties. This is a big loss for trees as well as other plants. And this doesn’t even take in to account the fossil fuels burned to operate leaf vacuums.
Our soils are low in organic matter because we don’t allow leaves to decompose like they do in the forest. When left alone, leaves return nitrogen and other organic matter to the soil. They also protect the soil surface, adding to its water holding capacity. And as they break down, they provide porosity and aeration, allowing more water to infiltrate the earth.
Shredded leaf mulch
SOLUTION: Shred your leaves with a mower and make leaf compost or leaf mold mulch (not the same thing.) For some great info on how to do both, click here for the spruce.com’s excellent article Rake Leaves and Make Compost Mulch.
HIGH pH SOILS ARE BAD FOR TREES
In a perfect world, soils have a slightly acidic to neutral pH (a pH of 5.5 to 6.5). Urban and suburban soils, however, often contain debris left behind from construction. This generally results in a higher soil pH due to leeching from masonry walls and foundations. Moreover, irrigation water frequently has a higher pH, too.
Leeching from masonry leads to soils with higher pH
All of this can lead to a dramatic difference between the nutrient ability of your native soil and that affected by construction and other materials. Since developed soils tend to have a higher pH and modified temperature, they put more heat stress on plants. As a result, trees grown in these locations may show signs of nutrient deficiency (like yellowing of leaves) and take longer to establish. They may even fail.
SOLUTION: Do a soil test to determine the pH and get the turf out from under your trees. Lawns may thrive on alkaline soil (that’s why we add lime), but trees prefer a lower pH.
Mulch improves soil structure while providing protection to a tree’s roots. It also supplies organic matter to the soil that reduces compaction. And it moderates soil temperatures, conserves moisture and eliminates competition from grass. Yet, many landscape trees are planted out in the lawn with no protection. This is another reason why trees fail.
Fite recommends mulching out to the drip line of a tree if you can. It will help prevent ‘mower blight’ (or your mower banging into the trees) and also protect against stripping from string trimmers. Mowers, by the way, also contribute to soil compaction, especially when they’re operated in wet conditions.
Mowers contribute to soil compaction and can damage a tree
SOLUTION: Create a mulch circle around your trees. It will help protect them from mower damage. And as the mulch decomposes, it will aerate the soil and provide nutrients.
FERTILIZING FOR NO REASON
According to Fite, fertilizer doesn’t fix everything. Pull a soil sample from around your tree first to determine whether or not to fertilize. Most soil labs will run diagnostics on your sample and send you back a prescription for what to add to your soil to improve its composition.
Before fertilizing, take a look around the landscape. If construction has occurred and interrupted a tree’s root zone, no amount of fertilizer is going to fix the problem.
And remember, although native soil usually contains lots of organic matter, during construction this layer is often buried under layers of sand or debris. Or sometimes, it’s stripped off entirely. No amount of fertilizer is going to bring life back to this kind of soil.
SOLUTION: Do a soil test to find out what your soil is made of before reaching for the fertilizer. Fix the soil first, then use fertilizer to adjust accordingly.
OTHER THINGS YOU CAN DO TO HELP YOUR TREES
Fite offered a couple additional suggestions for how to get your trees back in shape (assuming you haven’t destroyed most of the root system by building too close):
INVIGORATE THE ROOTS
Many times the best thing you can do for your trees is to invigorate their roots. Bartlett Tree uses an air spade, a tool that generates a high velocity jet of air to dislodge the soil. The rush of air breaks up and ‘tills’ the soil without removing it to a depth of about 8’ (the depth of the feeder roots). This method of improving the soil leaves root systems intact.
The air spade was originally developed by the military to clear land mines. Nowadays, it is used by landscapers and arborists to invigorate roots. After the soil is excavated, add soil, compost and mulch to settle the soil back down. Then water the tree.
Mulch breaks down because the microbes eat it for carbon, resulting in it having to be replaced every year. Charcoal, on the other hand, is stable, meaning it lasts for centuries. Biochar is a fine-grained, highly porous charcoal that is added to soil to help it retain water and nutrients. It acts like a dry sponge, but on its own contains no nutrients. Bartlett Tree recommends blending it with compost for best results.
Biochar acts as a dry sponge, but contains no nutrients
“Put the two together and magic happens,” said Fite.
Buyer beware, though, biochar is not regulated, so buy from a reputable source and read the label carefully.
Kelby Fite, Ph.D. is a VP and Director at Bartlett Tree Research Lab.
If you haven’t been to Denver, you may think Cheesman sounds like a strange place for a world-class garden. But, the old-line neighborhood plays host to one of the best ones I’ve toured in decades. No matter the season, the Denver Botanic Gardens is sure to wow. And impress me it did, with its grand spaces showcasing plants from all over the world. Continue reading →
Pennsylvania’s Longwood Gardens never ceases to amaze with its grand horticultural displays and this year has been no exception. And this winter, the famed Conservatory had yet one more surprise up its sleeve. In November, it received the prize for America’s Best Restroom.
“We are so pleased to win,” said Longwood’s chief marketing officer, Marnie Conley. “Longwood Gardens is about beautiful horticulture, being a good steward to our environment, and providing an extraordinary experience for our more than one million guests each year.” Continue reading →